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This week’s primary source readings represent three political/social strategies that emerge during the first two decades of the twentieth century: Social Democracy, Communism and Fascism.

1) From “What is to be done?” byVladimir Lenin, 1902

How should political revolutionaries be organized, according to Lenin? What is the difference between Social Democrats and labor unions, and why do you think it mattered?

2) FromCommunism and the Family (1920) by Alexandra Kollontaï

What “new relations between the sexes,” between the state and the individuals, between parents and children did Kollontai propose? How did this idea challenge the traditional family and morality?

3) From What is Fascism? (ca. 1932) by Benito Mussolini

How does Mussolini define fascism? What is his critique of other forms of political organization? How are nationalism and imperialism implicated in fascism?


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